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|Title:||Expatiating the molecular approaches of HMGB1 in diabetes mellitus: Highlighting signalling pathways via RAGE and TLRs|
|Keywords:||Diabetes mellitus (DM)|
High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs).
|Publisher:||Molecular Biology Reports|
|Abstract:||Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become one of the major healthcare challenges worldwide in the recent times and inflammation being one of its key pathogenic process/mechanism affect several body parts including the peripheral and central nervous system. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is one of the major non-histone proteins that plays a key role in triggering the inflammatory response. Upon its release into the extracellular milieu, HMGB1 acts as an "alarmin" for the immune system to initiate tissue repair as a component of the host defense system. Furthermore, HMGB1 along with its downstream receptors like Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) serve as the suitable target for DM. The forthcoming research in the field of diabetes would potentially focus on the development of alternative approaches to target the centre of inflammation that is primarily mediated by HMGB1 to improve diabetic-related complications. This review covers the therapeutic actions of HMGB1 protein, which acts by activating the RAGE and TLR molecules to constitute a functional tripod system, in turn activating NF-?B pathway that contributes to the production of mediators for pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with DM. The interaction between TLR2 and TLR4 with ligands present in the host and the activation of RAGE stimulates various immune and metabolic responses that contribute to diabetes. This review emphasizes to elucidate the role of HMGB1 in the initiation and progression of DM and control over the inflammatory tripod as a promising therapeutic approach in the management of DM.|
|Appears in Collections:||Journals|
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